CALL: past, present and future


Staff member
CALL: past, present and future

Stephen Bax

System 31 (2003): 13-28

This article offers a critical examination and reassessment of the history of CALL, and
argues for three new categories―Restricted, Open and Integrated CALL. It offers definitions and description of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses. It is suggested that we are currently using the second approach, Open CALL, but that our aimshould be to attain a state of ‘normalisation’in which the technology is invisible and truly integrated. This state is defined and discussed. In the final section the article proposes some ways in which this normalisation can be achieved―using ethnographic assessments and action research, for example―thus setting an agenda for CALL practice in the future.