不好意思，未上传成功4.2 Mental Processes
Table 4. 2 mental processes in the sample writings
Type number CET4 CET6
Perception 6 (see) 9 (see)
Cognition 18 9
The table above shows that there are two types of mental processes, namely, perception and cognition in the sample writings. Perception type is 9 in CET6 and 6 in CET4 writings. In this type, most of the sensors are “we” (candidates of CET4 and CET6 as well as the raters) and the phenomenon is that the given chart which is seen by the sensors. For example: “ from the picture, we can see that life expectancy in developing countries…” Even though “we” sensor in perception type could show a kind of involvedness, it is unlikely to appear in learned formal writing. Hence, this construction should be devalued in exposition.
Item O1 %1 O2 %2 LL
Word 9 0.22 6 0.15 + 0.68
9 is observed frequency in Corpus of CET6 and 6 is observed frequency in Corpus of CET4. 0.22 and 0.15 values show relative frequencies in the texts of CET6 and CET4 respectively. “- indicates overuse in CET6 writings relative to CET4 writings. The statistical score “0.68” is much lower than 3.84, which means that there is no significant difference in using perception type between writings of CET4 and CET6.
In CET4 writings, most of the mental processes in the texts are the “cognition” type which are usually chosen to describe people’s inner action of thinking, knowing, and understanding of certain phenomena rather than to express people’s feeling and intention to the outer world or some physiological behaviors such as seeing, hearing etc (Ke, 2004:28). In the writings of our study, candidates (writers) employ this type of mental process for the sake of describing people’s inner action of knowing. The sensors, participants of this action are mainly “we” and “I”. “We” senor are related to phenomena about a well-known truth or a public wish. For instance, examples in band 6: “we know one’s health is relate to…” or “and we believe that more great changes…” Examples in band 4: “all of us know that health has rapidly improved…” or “and we believe that more great changes…” “I” sensor are related to phenomena about the reason of the change. For instance, examples in band 6: “I believe it is mainly because of …” or “I think it is the reason…” or “I think that the changes may be attributed…” Examples in band 4: “I think there are two reasons…” or “ I think the first reason is…” or “I think the reason that caused the…”
In Meyer’s study of the difference between spoken texts and written texts, the writer found that I or we are informal and less likely to occur in learned formal writing. Especially when these pronouns (I, we) are combined with know or think, the effect is to make an assertion tentative and speculative. Furthermore, the verb think is used to express an opinion about the truth of an assertion being made. If the assertion is being made by “I” sensor, the tone of the writing seems to be highly personal. Consequently, these combinations will excessively discount the authority, objectivity and the formality. There are 12 cognition types with “I” or “we” as sensors in CET4 writings and 9 in CET6 writings.
Item O1 %1 O2 %2 LL
Word 12 0.29 9 0.22 + 0.36
12 and 9 are observed frequency in Corpus of CET4 and of CET6. 0.29 and 0.22 values show relative frequencies in the texts of CET4 and CET6 respectively. “- indicates overuse in CET4 writings relative to CET6 writings. The statistical score “0.36” means that there is no significant difference in using cognition type of mental processes between writings of CET4 and CET6.