[讨论]CLEC的瑕疵都有哪些呢?

#1
***CLEC的瑕疵都有哪些呢?***

楼主以用CLEC写硕士毕业论文的亲身经历来揭示CLEC的一些瑕疵。近年来,基于CLEC的研究不少。CLEC质量的高低直接影响我们研究结果的可信性。 tiger此前就此主题发过一个帖子。不过楼主发现,CLEC中的瑕疵远不止这些。本着为CLEC负责,为广大C友负责的态度,我将分主题并结合CLEC中的实际例子来说明问题的所在。此举并非指责CLEC,而是为CLEC的完善提供建议!!也为将来的语料库建设提供一些前车之鉴。
欢迎大家来讨论灌水!
另外,要声明的一点是,楼主所用CLEC语料库系正规渠道购买,语料库本身不会有问题。


首先,援引tiger此前发的一个纲领性帖子。
http://www.corpus4u.com/forum_view.asp?forum_id=74&view_id=464


近日在从clec st 3和st 4子库中抽取更小子库时,发现了一些小的格式纰漏:
1、st 3和st 4中有些text不是另行开头,而是紧接上一个text出现。
2、有些text的annotation marks不是全部出现在开头,而是分两部分在开头和结尾出现。
3、各类标注的排列顺序在不同子库、不同text中有些不同。
4、st 4中有些text的开头没有标注<st 4>.
5、有些text之间不空行,有的空一行,有的空几行。
6、st 4中有些text的有些标注在开头出现两次。

这些纰漏都很小,但在用不同的检索软件时,就会影响结果。

欢迎大家共同努力,发现更多的可改进之处。

最后要申明一点,本人决不是要否定这一语料库在中国的里程碑意义,而是希望它更加完美,成为learner corpora中的经典。







[本贴已被 作者 于 2006年03月05日 20时34分23秒 编辑过]
 
#2
(1)格式上的瑕疵
1、st 3和st 4中有些text不是另行开头,而是紧接上一个text出现。

例如:<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE Haste Makes Waste> <SCH 2342> <SCORE 8> <ID 441407>It is said that haste makes waste. Why? Because anything works in his [pr1, 2-] way. If you have nothing know how it works and what it is [sn8, -s], you try your best in vain. While you don't make it even if you prepare well and know almost [wd3, -] about it, for success will not come to you.[sn7,s]Have you known it? For example, you built [vp6, s-] a building. You first built [vp6, -s] the first floor, then the second and so on. If you don't build the first floor, you don't have the second one. We say "Romes [fm1,-] is not built in a day." In a word, you wish [vp1, -2] your success, you must do [vp1, -] step by step. Of course you must know well your aims and how to do it. Haste makes waste. Keep it in your mind, and you will succeed. <ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE Haste Makes Waste> <SCH 2342> <SCORE 10> <ID 441412>"Haste makes waste" is the sentence that people usually said [vp6, s-]. But why say "Haste makes waste"? It is the truth. For example, as a student, you want to learn good [wd2, 1-] of course. But if you study even [wd5, 1-1] hard all through the day and night, you will make your body become bad[cc4,2-] . If this [sn2, s], your leaning [wd3, s-] is "Haste makes waste", because you couldn't keep your leaning [wd3,-] for [wd3, -] your illness. Making the hopeness [fm2,-], then you should go to it [pr1, s-] step by step. If you ran [vp6, s-] to it, you may fall [wd3, s-] in the half. In the society some things like [wd2, 2-1] this. Like building [sn3, -s], you should make [wd3,-1] it from the ground to the highest. If you want to build [vp1, -1] quickly, you may make the building unsafe. So when the building fall [vp3, 2-] in, your doing [wd7,1-] also is "Haste makes waste." So haste makes waste. Whatever you doing [vp4, s-], you should make it step by step instead of it [pr1, s-] [sn8, -s]. <ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE Haste Makes Waste> <SCH 2342> <SCORE 10> <ID 441426>Whatever we do, we must show our patient [wd2, 1-], hold our hard [wd3, 2-] into [vp2,4-] it. We mustn't only want to be fast, but [wd5, -s] do not think whether it is well done. In general, haste makes waste. (例子来自ST4)

2、有些text的annotation marks不是全部出现在开头,而是分两部分在开头和结尾出现。

<ST 3> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <WAY 1> <DIC 2> <TYP 1> <TITLE Health Gains In Developing Countries> According to the two pictures, the developing country's life expectancy raised [vp7,s-] and the baby's [wd5,-2] infant mortality declined from 1960 to 1990. In 1960, the developing country's [np6,s-] life expectancy was only 40, but In [fm3,1-1] 1990. [sn9,s-] It was over 60. And the baby's infant mortality was 10 percent in 1990 while it was 20 percent in 1960. Why did this happen? There are two causes. Firstly, the developing county's [wd3,s-] government put a lot of money on people's health. They built a lot of hospitals to test [wd3,s-] people's body, cure diseas [fm1,-] . Secondly, when people's living condition raised [vp1,s-] , they looked after their babies better and better. So the baby's [wd5,-2] infant mortality declined. In one word, the better [wd4,s-] living-condition [fm2,-] , the higher life expectancy and lower baby's [wd5,s-2] infant mortality. <SCH 2541> <ID 420519> <SCORE 6> (例子来自ST3)

3、各类标注的排列顺序在不同子库、不同text中有些不同。标准做法是将错误代码标在错误之后。但有时却标在错误词语前面,有时标在句子后面,有时标注重复,有时标错了位置。

But I remembered that I [vp6,3-3] haven't brought my ticke [fm1,-]. (错误代码标注在错误单词haven't前面)

It was our turn, [sn9,-]my [fm3,-]classmate and I [vp6, 7-3] get on the stage.(错误代码标注在错误单词get 前面)(以上两例子来自ST2)


What they committed are great crimes [vp6,s-](标错了位置) and the money he stole [vp6,s-s-]( 标注冗余) is aimed [vp1,2-2] to pay for a blind lady's medicine fee.(来自ST6)

In this sense, those inhuman rulers really contribute a lot to the unification of one country [vp6,d] (标在了句子后面)(以上两例来自ST6)

[本贴已被 作者 于 2006年03月06日 18时12分08秒 编辑过]
 
#3
4 st 4中有些text的开头没有标注<st 4>.
<score 7> <TITLE Getting to Know the World Outside the Campus> <BAND 4> <June 97> <SCH 2441> Getting to know the world outside the campus is necessary for us. Because, when we get into the university, we have to face two things, one is study [vp5,s-], the other is plan [vp5,s-] to go on [wd3,1-2] the society. After all, we will work and live on [wd3,-] society but not in university. What ways can we get to know the world outside the campus?[sn8,s] We can through the newspaper, serving of society and watching TV .[sn8,s] Of course, talking [wd4,-2] each other is a way of get to know the world outside the campus too. What can I do? At first, I will study very hard in university. Then, I should read the [wd5,1-1] newspaper usually [wd3,-] and plan to get the information as much as I can.


<score 6> <TITLE Getting to Know the World Outside the Campus> <BAND 4> <June 97> <SCH 2441> The students of colleague [wd3,-] must know the World [fm3,-] Outside [fm3,-] the campus. In the colleague [wd3,-], all of [wd3,1-1] students are in their twenties. They will go to social [wd2,-] to work as soon as they graduate from school [wd3,-]. Because the thing of social [wd2,1-] [wd7,3-] is not similar to the one of school [wd7,3-], the students of colleague [wd3,s-] must know it. You can know the world through the newspaper or the television. You can go to ferm [fm1,-] to work so that you can know the word [fm1,-] in your leisure time. You can take part in some social activities, such as cleaning the street on Sunday or Saturday. In order to know the world outside the campus, I will go to my mother's factory to work in the vacation.



5、有些text之间不空行,有的空一行,有的空几行。


<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <SCH 2745> <TITLE My View on Job-Hopping> <SCORE 7> <ID 440807>
Some people work on [wd3,1-2] one job all their life, because they think there are many benifits [fm1,-] in this. For example, in Japan, if you work more time than others, you will have more chance to get high rank, and good salary. in [fm3,-] China, people who do not want to move their jobs [cc3,2-]. all [fm3,-] always think the relatinship [fm1,-] with others, the house, the chirld [fm1,-], so they are stable. But some other people urually [fm1,-] work from one job to another. Why is it? Because those people have the different thought. They want to study more and have more friends, or they want to find the well [wd3,1-1] place that they can work, or even they want to travl [fm1,-] from one city to another, one country to another by this way. [sn8,s-] If you ask what's my option, I can tell you that I will change my job sometimes before 30. Because I want [vp1,-1] learn more about this world. After this, I will do a job that I love for a long time. I think I can do well by [wd3,-2] this way. It is my view on Job-Hopping. What do you think about it?
(空几行)



<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <SCH 2745> <TITLE My View on Job-Hopping> <SCORE 7> <ID 430223>
Today, many people would like to do the same job all at last [wd3,1-]. They think that a steady job will bring him [pr3,s-] a steady life. So they can do their things that they like to do in their spare time. But another [wd3, -1] people don't like steady job [np6,2-]. They always like to change their jobs. Because they think they will find the value and the interest of the life through changing the job. Most of them want to chang [fm1,-] their life through changing the job. My view on job-hopping is to find a job adapted [wd3,1-2] to myself by changing job [np6,1-] consicently [fm1,-] and then insist [vp1,-1] it on [pp2,-2] my life, in order to realize my order [wd3,1-3] in my life.
*********************************************************************************************
<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE Haste Makes Waste> <SCH 2301> <SCORE 11> <ID 430929>
There is a saying, [sn9, -s] Haste makes waste, [sn9, -s] in old times. It suggests that if you want to achieve something quickly, however [wd3, -s] you always can not get it. One of the reasons is that the everything in the world has its own regularity. We have to comply with it and can not change it. The national economic also has its own regularity. In previous time [np6, 2-], China wanted keenly to reach communisty [fm1,-] society early. However, it have [vp3, 1-] made our national economic [wd2, 2-] develop slowly, and to some extents [wd3, 2-], it did harm to [vp1, 1-4] our national economic's [fm2,-] development. Today our government adopted the open and reform policy. Our national economic [wd2, 2-] become [vp3, 3-] apparently better than ever. The people's living conditions are much improved. The people's educational level rised. [fm2,-](不空行)
<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE Haste Makes Waste> <SCH 2301> <SCORE 8> <ID 430921>
That haste makes waste is known to everyone in China. Whatever we do, we must remember it. There are some reason [np3, 1-] for it. First, when someone is haste [wd2,-], he hasn't enough time to think what he should do and how he should do. So it will cause somebody does [vp1, 2-] what he needn't do. Then he will waste his time and get nothing. On the other hand, haste makes people not know [wd1, 2-] how to do [sn8, s-]. So people will do everything. But [wd3, -s] all will reach nothing. Second, haste will make people's mood bad. When someone is in bad mood, he willn't [fm2,-] do a good thing, so what he has do [vp9, 1-] will be waste. For example, studing [fm2,-] English can't haste [wd2,-]. If someone is hurry [vp9,1-] to make his English level [wd5, 1-] progress
(来自ST4)






6 正文有时紧接标注,有时空几行。

<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE My view on Job-Hopping> <SCH 2541> <SCORE 10> <ID 441322> Most people have to work in order to exist in the world. To different people, however, the views on job-hopping are different. Some people like to persue [fm1,-] the same kind of job in all their lives. Because they are interested in their present jobs or they hope a stable life. On the contrary, Others like to change their present jobs. Because either they long for higher pay and better conditions or they want to accept new challenges. [sn2,s] To [pp2,-2] my opinion, both of the two views on job-hopping are normal [wd7,s-] we need. Some people persue [fm1,-] only one job in all their lives, such as the scientists. On the other hand, we also need some people change their jobs to stimulate the contrast and the increasing of economy. [sn8,s-] But I don't think it is good to change the job too frequently.

***************************************************************************************

<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE My view on Job-Hopping> <SCH 2541> <SCORE 9 > <ID 430618 >

(空几行)
We must study and live through the job, so the job is important to us. But how can we should [vp9,2-] do. [sn9,s-] Some one like [vp3,1-] to do one job for a [wd5,1-1] long. Because they think that can make [vp1,-3] to gain achievements. [sn8,s-] Some one like [vp3,1-] to change their jobs frequently. Because this makes them find a job that fit [vp3,3-] [vp1,-1] for them at last. I don't disagree with the first one. But I like the latter better. Because the job is [vp9,-1] fit for us or not is concerned to our success. [sn8,s-] If we are at a work that we do not like, we will be not interested in it and can not do it good [wd2,s-]. So when we find the job do [vp3,1-] not fit [vp1,-1] for us, we must try another one.

7 标在错误位置

<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE My view on job-hopping> <SCH 2541> <SCORE 6> <ID 431112>


Many people likes [vp3,2-] to engage in a kind of job all along [wd5,1-2] the time. Because they think a fixed job can bring them a stable position and a skilled work procedure [cc4,2-]. If a job was often changed, they would try to fit [vp9,1-1] in it every time, and this will expend [wd3,-s] them much time and energy. But other people likes [vp3,1-] to change the job oftenly [fm2,-]. Because they think different job can bring them different feeling, if they have a new job, it will make him a new position, the other side [pp2,2-], a fixed job is no taste, [sn8,s-] it would make man a bad behavior, [sn8,s-] lose the interesting [wd3,1-3] of the living.[sn1,s] I think, a man can't change the job time and time [wd7,2-] but also can't fix [wd3,s-] on a job from time to time if you [pr1,s-] think it is unfit [vp9,1-] for you. [sn8,s-] Why? Because you can't maste [fm1,-] the skill about your work is a short time, [sn8,s] if you change the job oftenly [fm2,-], you will have nothing on [wd3,-2] you living. But, [sn9,s-] if you have lose [vp9,1-] interested [wd3,1-] in a job you have taken a long time, still you can't put your heart on it, if you want to make a great progress in your remained [wd3,-1] living, you'd better change a job, in ordor [fm1,-]to exposed your skill [cc3,2-] enough and make a great achievement in your job, so the job can't be changed oftenly [fm2,-], but if you find it not fit for you, [sn8,s-] you must change it as soon as possible. [sn1,s] <ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <TITLE My view on Job-Hopping> <SCH 2541> <SCORE 6> <ID 430819>(应该移到下面作文前面。)


Their [wd3,-5] are two kinds of man [np3,3-]. One kind tend [vp3,2-] to do only one kind of work for long time. Because they interested on [aj2,1-] this work very much. [sn2,s] From the work, they can gain much fun. Or they think they had [vp6,-s] do [vp9,1-] the work very skill [wd2,s-], and not tend to change their work.The other tend [vp3,1-] to often change their work. Because they think the work they doing [vp4,1-] soon become [vp3,s-] uninterested [aj4,-1], the new work can give them new interesting [wd3,s-]. Or they love the challendge [fm1,-] of new work. I think, pay [vp4,-s] close attention to one work is a food banner, because it can make us do this work more and more effciencely [fm1,-] and improve the productive [wd2,s-]. New work can give us new challendge [fm1,-]. From new work we can learn more knowledge. More knowledge can make us more creative. We mustn't change work because it's uninteresting, or tend to do one work because lazy to learn new knowledge. [sn8,s-] In a word, working hard, facing the challendge [fm1,-]. [sn2,s] All of us will succeed.
 

xusun575

高级会员
#4
楼主说的只是技术上\操作上失误,任何系统的flaws、甚至bugs皆难免。CLEC的achilles's heel问题在设计上,以 千人以至万人一题的考试作文作为语料,其真实性、代表性、平衡性难免失察。但作为国内开拓性工作,其引领作用仍值得肯定,can never be overestimated。不信你也打鼓一个出来看看?
 

slgg6985

普通会员
#5
回复:[讨论]CLEC的瑕疵都有哪些呢?

以下是引用 xusun5752006-3-5 16:37:03 的发言:
楼主说的只是技术上\操作上失误,任何系统的flaws、甚至bugs皆难免。CLEC的achilles's heel问题在设计上,以 千人以至万人一题的考试作文作为语料,其真实性、代表性、平衡性难免失察。但作为国内开拓性工作,其引领作用仍值得肯定,can never be overestimated。不信你也打鼓一个出来看看?
本人同意这位C友的部分观点,即CLEC是结构性问题。我认为这是一个致命性(fatal)的错误,使该语料库得出的数据极不可靠,使很多硕士生的论文在收集数据的初始阶段就已经注定那些论文是构建在不可靠的数据的基础上。以权威的面目出现,误导了一批学子。一种母语背景的学习者语料库根本没有必要搞得这么大(ICLE每个子库只有20万tokens),但一定要保证topics的多样性,文体的多样性,而不是一个作文题搞上几万词,才能保证这个语料库的更具代表性。本人近期花了70多银子,买了一本书和光盘,研读之后觉得不满意(参见本人前几天发的一个帖子,是关于CLEC的构成问题的)。请原谅我这个小子辈对杨教授的不敬,但是学术问题是可以自由发表个人意见的。

因此,我觉得这位C友的“不信你也搞一个看看”这种说法有些过分。如果占有杨教授那样的资源(杨教授是四六级考试的负责人,任何考过的试题随他调遣),恐怕要比他搞得更好。
 
#6
回复:[讨论]CLEC的瑕疵都有哪些呢?

以下是引用 xusun5752006-3-5 16:37:03 的发言:
楼主说的只是技术上\操作上失误,任何系统的flaws、甚至bugs皆难免。CLEC的achilles's heel问题在设计上,以 千人以至万人一题的考试作文作为语料,其真实性、代表性、平衡性难免失察。但作为国内开拓性工作,其引领作用仍值得肯定,can never be overestimated。不信你也打鼓一个出来看看?

先别急,我在开头已经说过,将会分主题进行实证调查。以上发的帖子只是主题一, 也就是“格式上的纰漏”。关于取材的平衡性,以及错误标注等方面,将在以后慢慢探讨。
 
#7
回复:[讨论]CLEC的瑕疵都有哪些呢?

以下是引用 xusun5752006-3-5 16:37:03 的发言:
楼主说的只是技术上\操作上失误,任何系统的flaws、甚至bugs皆难免。CLEC的achilles's heel问题在设计上,以 千人以至万人一题的考试作文作为语料,其真实性、代表性、平衡性难免失察。但作为国内开拓性工作,其引领作用仍值得肯定,can never be overestimated。不信你也打鼓一个出来看看?

先别着急。 我在一开始就说过, 我将会分主题进行实证调查。以上发的几个帖子都是关于主题一的,就是“格式上的纰漏”。 第一个主题还没有谈完。至于平衡性,以及错误标注等瑕疵将在以后的帖子当中涉及到。最近实在太忙了,不然一口气全发完。
 

xusun575

高级会员
#8
回复:[讨论]CLEC的瑕疵都有哪些呢?

以下是引用 slgg69852006-3-5 19:45:55 的发言:
以下是引用 xusun5752006-3-5 16:37:03 的发言:
楼主说的只是技术上\操作上失误,任何系统的flaws、甚至bugs皆难免。CLEC的achilles's heel问题在设计上,以 千人以至万人一题的考试作文作为语料,其真实性、代表性、平衡性难免失察。但作为国内开拓性工作,其引领作用仍值得肯定,can never be overestimated。不信你也打鼓一个出来看看?
.......
因此,我觉得这位C友的“不信你也搞一个看看”这种说法有些过分。如果占有杨教授那样的资源(杨教授是四六级考试的负责人,任何考过的试题随他调遣),恐怕要比他搞得更好。
请将不如激将啊。。后来者肯定比前人强,且前人一般没有那么多的IT和数理知识。只是地缘优势和机遇使然。但CLEC,尤其是jdest 库在国内corpus 史上的位置可是无法抹杀的罗。
 

patricx

高级会员
#9
说得有道理,大家应该多一点学术探讨,可以用实证的方法来判断对错,学术争鸣是应该提倡的啊,我们晚辈应该批判继承前辈的成果,这叫长江后浪推前浪了,还有,请大家还是尊重前辈。
 
#11
接主题一 “格式上的纰漏”

8 标注信息不全

<ST 4> <band 6> <title The Cloud above the Battle field> (信息不全)
Here was no trace of enemy for the moment as far as eye can reach. Everything fell into silence. He, drained and depleted, just lay and watched in the trench. His face was that of a student's with a pair of confused eyes. Under the sky, the mountains stood still. Beside him were the corpses of his companions and his own rifle. He stretched himself out, changed the pose and faced the blue sky. No, not blue, but gray, the dead gray. The Sun was unsteady, panting and sighing. Suddenly, something in the sky grasped his attention [cc3,-]. It was the single cloud at this very moment, however, curiously shaped, hanging on the edge of the mountains. He looked straightly at the cloud with wide-open eyes. Against the strands of sunlight, the cloud exhibited itself brightly and splendidly. Its color ranged from pure white to faint yellow, gold, orange, and even purple. Suddenly the machine guns and rifles broke the silence of the dawn, like dogs barking on the lonely farms. He reluctantly hauled his eyesight away and looked around. There was no one in the eyeshot - the enemy was under cover. He thought for a while, and then moved his eyes to the cloud again. Now, it sank a little and converted itself into a more capricious shape. He smiled and murmured to it in spite of the louder gunshots. Suddenly, a bullet whistled past his ears just beside him. He cursed and crawled away to the opposite. However, he still gazed at the cloud, which was almost unseen, only leaving a small part tantalizing him. Another machine gun ravaged the ground around him with a shower of bullets. Finally, a bullet hit him mercilessly on the head. He died immediately with a vestige of smile beside his mouth and the still opened eyes, fixing on the trace of the cloud. Then it lay still, peacefully.

<ST 4> <band 6> <title Pass By, Friendship Stays> (信息不全)
It was summer. The air-conditioned compartment was stuffy. People hustled about in the aisle, occasionally bumping into each other or murmuring something like "sorry", or "excuse me". As the train started, those who traveled in groups began to chat or play cards. Those who, like myself, traveled alone either tried to sleep or settled on a book. I also decided to spend the whole night reading; one of the disadvantages of travelling overnight is that there is no chance to appreciate the landscape outside. Unfortunately, I could not concentrate. Maybe I needed a refreshing chat instead, I thought. Yet around me was only a heated discussion about the stock market -- things that I was ignorant of. Somehow the girl sitting opposite attracted my attention. In simple white T-shirt and with a schoolbag, she was apparently a college student. Contrary to the din around, she was immersed in her own book. As she read intensively, an unconscious smile nestled in her crystal-like eyes, indicating hearty appreciation of the contents. I then decided that I might enjoy talking to her; at least we both had a campus experience to share. But how could I make a start? I was, by nature, shy and passive. I never [ad1,-] could initiate a conversation with enough confidence and tact. Reluctantly, I gave up the thought. Then the service boy on the train came along with tea and coffee. I bought a cup of coffee to freshen myself up. As I sat by the window, however, it was difficult to take the hot stuff back. A stable hand offered timely help. It was the girl opposite. I thanked her, and then, nudged by something inside, added, "What are you reading about?" At this [wd4,-] she handed me the book gracefully and replied, "It is one of my favorite: [sn9,-] novels by contemporary Western writers. Oh, by the way, I noticed that you are reading something on aesthetics. May I have a look at the book, please?" "Of course." Then, we exchanged the books and began talking about our reading habits. The initial barrier between strangers was cast off; the chatterbox was opened. Or indeed, it was a treasure box that was opened. She was a student of Chinese Literature and I had always cherished an interest [cc3,-] in novels and poems; our topics were abundant. I listened to her recommendation of masters' works, remarks on contemporary writers and admiration for her favorite books and authors. She, in return, got to know my perspective of literary works as an outsider, one whose view is profoundly influenced by "the scientific way of thinking". This extensive exchange of ideas and thoughts was really wonderful: focuses of the discussions shifted quickly and randomly; new thoughts inspired the mind [cc3,-] constantly. Like floods rushing over barren land, the hearty conversation nourished an otherwise lonely night. Time flashed by. It was soon dawning. When the first beam of sunlight gilded the tiny tables and soft couches inside, most of the passengers were still fast asleep. We were both staying awake for a whole night, yet it felt like dreaming in a sense. Hours ago we were mere strangers: two individuals that happened to board on the same train. Minutes later we would bid each other farewell, as old friends. We could have passed by without knowing each other, were it not for the girl's helping hand, reaching out further beyond necessity,and for my rather abrupt question, bumping slightly out of the sphere of conventionality. Yes, sometimes friendship could be so easy [wd7,-], if one takes the initiative.


9 标注形式各异
She said she just went [VP6,4-8] (换作有的人标注,可能会标成 [vp6, s-], 范围4-8大家看看,也就本句。) to the Beijing Road and bought some books. (ST2)
 
#14
接主题一 “格式上的纰漏”

10 各类标注的排列顺序在不同子库、不同text中有些不同。
<ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <SCH 2501> <TITLE Haste Makes Waste> <SCORE 7> <ID 445711> (试跟下面的题头比较)
"Haste makes waste" is the [np7,s-] famous saying. It [wd3,-3] is to say, the more you will [wd5,s-] want, the less you will get. When you do something, if you are hasted [fm2,-], you can't do it carefully, there are [vp3,1-s] much detail you will omit and there are much [np8,-1] errors you will make. When the thing is finished, the end is worse than you want [wd3,s-]. It is also worse the you do it carefully. [sn8,s-] [wd7,s-]
There are many example [np3,1-]. As far as study [wd2,-1] English is concerned, it [pr1,s-] is a case in point. It is well known, [wd4,s-] the English study is a slow course. To rember [fm1,-] the new words, you shold [fm1,-] remeber [fm1,-] [cc5,-4] it again and again, and you should remeber [fm1,-] the words not too much you want to rember [fm1,-] the news [wd2,-1] words a hundred one day, [wd7,s-] tomorrow you will forget 99 of them.[sn1,s-] [sn8,s-]
Let us rember [fm1,-] the saying "Haste makes waste", to do every thing carefully and slowly. [sn8,s-]


<score 10> <TITLE My View on Fake Commodities> <ST 4> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <AGE ?> <DIC ?> <TYP 1> <WAY 1> <Dec.97> <SCH 2441> In modern society, we live on commodities, and the fake commodities is a danger [wd2,-1] enemy in the darkness. They not only cannot afford [cc3,-4] us the useful aspect what [pr5,-] they should have, but also intimid [fm1,-] our lives and our possessions. For example, a high-pressure pain is not quantified, and its explosion can cause a tragical [fm1,-] accident. The [wd7,-1] like that has been printed in newspaper not for the first time[cc5,9-].[sn8,s] As we all know, the substance CH3OH in fake wine will make bright eyes dim. On the other hand, the fake commodities can also affect the fame of some firm badly.Now it is time for us to get rid of all the fake commodities from the shelf in the shops. Above all, we customers must erect [wd3,-] a sense of self-protection. If we all have bright eyes, fake commodities will have to be hidden. Second, the government must act on a stiffer law to prohibit the production of fake commodities.I believe the day without any fake commodities will come soon in spite of some difficulties.
(FROM ST4)
 
#15
主题之二: 标注失误,窃以为这是最严重的错误。 楼主将这种错误分成三类。

1)硬标, 有点霸王硬上弓的意思,就是头痛医头,脚痛医脚,没有全局观。就算改正了标出的错误,本句还是错的。
2)错标,该标A的你标成了B。
3)漏标, 句中还有错误,却未标出。

一点声明:由于本人关注时态错误,因此,所给例子大部分跟时态错误(vp6)有关。另外,以上错误的鉴定还得到了新西兰友人,作家,David Speary 的帮助,特此鸣谢!

1)硬标 (标注生硬)

These measures make criminals get the well deserved punishment. Another [wd3,d] one reflecting in the mental area is that the person who had ever been crime [wd7,s-] will lose all standing and reputation in the society. What he can gain are just the people's supercilious look and scorn. He also will meet a lot of difficulties in some aspects as finding [wd4,1-1] job, getting understanding of relatives and friends, making friends etc. He will also suffer from the great pressure of public opinion, which will cast a shadow on his life, and bring him all kinds of DEPRESSION depressant [wd3,-] loss and sadness. It even can TEAR tore [vp9,1-] his confidence IN of life which is established difficulty into pieces [wd7,s-] On second thought, he has gained the forgiveness of the masses and lived [vp6,s-] in the normal way. (这句话应该改成 GIVEN A SECOND CHANCE, HE COULD GAIN THE FORGIVENESS OF THE MASSES AND LIVE A NORMAL LIFE. 这个句子应该综合治理,并不是仅仅标出vp6就行了。)But when he recollect [vp3,1-2] the past, he still can't drive the shadow off from his heart, and still be [vp7,s-] hurt by memories.

2)错标

<ST 6> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <SCH GW> <AGE ?> <WAY 3> <DIC 1> <TYP 1> (t2-1) All along the history [pp1,3-] of human race, when a nation was founded, together with it there must be a series of state apparatus, such as the central government, military force [np6,6-] as well as prison [np6,3-] Military is for national defense while prison system is also a kind of defense system to separate criminals from orderly life, to prevent the trouble-makers from doing further harm to the society. The prison system appeared and will disappear along with the nation itself. So long as the nation exists, the prison system will always be a symbol of state power and never be out-dated. Someone argues that to lock the criminals up is violating the human rights. But, when a person commited [fm2,-] a crime that had endangered [vp6,s-] people's life, had made [vp6,s-] others suffer either physically, spiritually, financially or all of the above, and had caused [vp6,s-] disorder in the public life, he is definitely violating other people's rights of enjoying a good and peaceful life. (时态没有错误 life→lives, 删掉public前的the)

And, [wd4,1-2] prison system can't prevent this kind of people from robbing. They couldn't help getting the money, which is too easy to take. Public opinion is more important for the social crimes. When people found [,s-] they were [,s-] also [wd4,3-1] trouble, they might be initiative [wd7,s-] It's [wd7,s-] not always successful for the coercive measure. An uncompromising stand will get contrary result. More power, more gulity [fm1,-] (t2-7) The regularity [wd3,s-] that criminals should be put into prison has not been changed for about thousands of years. But recently some societists [fm2,-] point [vp6,3-] (时态没有错误 societist→socialists 去掉into后的the)out that the [wd5,s-] criminals should not be put into the [wd5,s-] prison and they said the prison system was already outdated. It is true that the prison system is so old that it can not satisfy [vp1,s-] the police to hold so many criminals.


In some country [np3,2-] the governments have had some try. The living conditions of the inmates have been improved greatly. They have comfortable bedrooms, they have TV and telephone and can communicate with [wd4,1-2] outside world. There are also various forms of serving sentences, including probation and conditional releases, such as work release and study release. Offenders can work or study in the community. Of course, their behaviour will be reported so that the officials can know they are not doing wrong. Educational services are also offered to the inmates ranging from vocational training, basic adult skills to college courses. Knowledge of law are [vp3,s-] also served. Through working and studying the offenders may realise [fm1,-] what they have [vp6,s-] done in the past and what they should do in the future. (时态没有错误,Chinglish)

<ST 6> <SEX ?> <Y ?> <SCH GW> <AGE ?> <WAY 3> <DIC 1> <TYP 1> (t7-1) I don't think people would like to stay in army for all their life (may be some do). If a war comes when they get too old, what will be the result? They have [vp6,d] (时态没有错误)lost their energy by then. When a war really takes place, it needs more people to take part in. Only the professional soldiers are not enough. More young people are needed. So they should learn some skills in case [sn8,s-] needed to defend their country. However, we can't say that those with more young men serving in armies will win in a war. That depends on many other things. It is also good for the young men themselves to take military service [cc3,2-] The several years' training will benefit them a lot. They gain skills, temper their willpower and become strong. Also, patriotism will take root in their mind. After this experience, most of them can endure difficulties in work and in life. Military service system is necessary for both the country and the people themselves. It will have its value unless there is no war in the world. (t7-4) A lot of countries carry out a system of military service, that is, every citizen above or under certain ages should attend military service [cc3,2-] for [wd4,1-2] certain period [np6,2-] But I think nowadays it is not necessary to have such a system.



The Gulf War has shown us that it is still a great thing to fight for one's country. To the further [cc4,-1] extent, not only the Gulf War but every war between two countries can show us this. And it is not the question of "Still". There is always a great thing to fight for one's country, if he is honorable and patriotic! (t8-6) The Gulf War showed that the United States tried to be the master of the world once more. Iraq has always improved [vp6,s-](时态没有错误) its great military power in the past. The II [wd3,1-2] world war and the Vietnam war [fm3,2-] had shown [vp6,d] that kind of countries' ambition. Though today's economy is the most important factor [np1,-5] to built [vp5,1-] a powerful nation, power politics is still alive.


Without parliament, no one could control his power and oppose his policy. He became a real dictator. All people has [vp3,2-] [vp6,d] (时态没有错误,people→power)converged on him. The parliament didn't obey his order. Then, he sent troops to surround the parliament building. He threw the leader of the parliament into prison. Is this a civil rule? No. His power came from the barrel. Now, he has more power than others. He can do whatever he like [vp3,1-] without any opposition. He is more equal [aj3,1-] than others. The president has advocated pluralism before. He said different idea should be allowed and opposition party should be allowed to take part in the election. But before the new parliament election, the president announced that his opponent, Ruslan Khasbulatov, whom he had thrown in prison, was not allowed to take part in the election. He cracked down on his opponent by military means.


Humanity live [vp3,1-] on the nature, and it's the nature that provides us with all the materials for a living. We gain everything from the nature for our development. In this aspect, we should pay much attention to the nature, or it will at last do harm to humanity in reverse. Even in modern society, this constant truth will apply. Take population as an example, ever since the end of World War II, many countries in Asia, Africa and South America gained independence. Yet most of these countries are poor and economically backward. Among their joyous cheer for their independence, a baby boom emerged and the population increased dramatically, even out of control. This stands in the way of the country's development and [sn1,s-] even worse, it brought [vp6,s-] some new and more severe problems to the country. For [wd1,s-] the natural resources in a country is [vp3,s-] limited and the overgrowing population will lead to overtapping [fm1,-] of the resources [sn9,s-] hence the degeneration of environment, the loss of ecological balance and other social problems such as crimes, shortage of house [np6,1-] followed [vp6,s-] the heel.(时态没有错误, 去掉 followed the heel.) How can you have the heart to hear that thousands of children are starving, or suffering from deseases [fm1,-] because of lack of food? Creating new life is one of the greatest career of humanity, yet even so humanity should follow the rule of nature, should be in harmony with the nature.

For example, if a person stole $10,000 from a bank in China, he may be sentenced. Although to our Chinese $10,000 is a large sum of money, it cannot be equal to a person's life. If the same crime happens in U.S., the criminal may have to be in prison for several years. The punishment is less severe than that in China, but to an American, $10,000 does not worth several year's freedom. From the example we can draw an [np7,-1] conclusion that crime does not pay. A criminal must pay more than he have [vp3,s-] got. However, there are criminals escaping from punishment of the law. It may seem that they have been well paid for the crime. But can they really escape from punishment? An example will give you the answer. If a person had killed [,d] an old lady and robbed [vp6,d](此处无时态错误而是用词错误,robbed away→ stolen) away all her money, and the police failed [vp6,d] to find out the murderer. He is really very lucky. But if, unfortunately, he still remain [vp3,2-] his human nature [cc1,1-] during the course of investigation, he will be very nervous, his mind may fill with fear, and he may be at the edge of mental collapse.

(以上句例皆出自ST6)
 

dinooja

普通会员
#18
10楼
大家互相尊重,小辈当然应该尊重长辈,长辈也不要忽悠小辈

说“长辈也不要忽悠小辈”可能言重了――我想杨教授和桂教授肯定是想把该语料库作完美的。
出现的一些问题,正好是我们小辈、后学继续努力的地方。




[本贴已被 作者 于 2006年03月17日 13时51分57秒 编辑过]
 

laohong

管理员
Staff member
#19
回复:[讨论]CLEC的瑕疵都有哪些呢?

以下是引用 dinooja2006-3-17 13:50:02 的发言:
说“长辈也不要忽悠小辈”可能言重了――我想杨教授和桂教授肯定是想把该语料库作完美的。
出现的一些问题,正好是我们小辈、后学继续努力的地方。
请注意:没有人说杨教授和桂教授在忽悠小辈!前文所说的是就一般情况而说,学术界小辈们被忽悠的事例还少吗? 没有必要在这里都抖落出来吧?
 
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